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[转载] 为什么中国的发展比印度快那么多?

Why has China developed so much faster than India?
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( Q7 n* i. [! |0 {Why has China developed so much faster than India? % F7 b$ W5 V( H' v: y9 M) i
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为什么中国的发展比印度快那么多?( w8 J. K& v2 f. Q* c/ d
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评论翻译1 h% D: c! P9 @+ P% E! ?0 L; `$ S

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Janus Dongye, Coding Peasant at University of Cambridge (2012-present)
& Q+ M! g$ r* L  ZLet me explain the intrinsic reason from the perspective of a researcher in the University of Cambridge in UK. I hope I can give you something that is insightful and inspiring.
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让我以一名剑桥大学研究人员的视角来分析一下本质原因吧。我希望我可以给你提供一些富有洞见和鼓舞人心的观点。
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I am currently pursuing my research in the area of artificial intelligence/deep neural networks, which I believe is one of the key technologies to the next wave of industrialization and growth of the global economy. In my research group, there are lot of incredibly smart Indian people in Cambridge who dedicate themselves to the research. I have to admit that they are much smarter and more talented than me and I am sure that they have the ability to push the edge of the technology even further.
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* r# k/ H7 a+ m  F1 U( ?  \我目前研究的领域是人工智能/深度神经网络,我认为对于新一轮工业化和全球经济增长而言,这是一个关键的技术。在我的剑桥研究团队里,有很多非常聪明的印度人,他们献身于研究。我得承认他们比我更聪明,更有才,我相信他们有能力进一步推动技术的发展。
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; g; M3 U. A8 }% KThe brain drain is the real problem of India: in order to develop faster, industrialisation is key. I am sure PM Modi is fully aware of that in his “Make in India” campaign. However, in order to really develop industrialisation, we need to understand that the educated talents are the seed, the domestic environment is the soil, government policies are the fertiliser, and the market/foreign investment is sunlight & water. Without the “seed”, we will never see the real industrialisation progress from the very beginning. This is where India is most lagging behind.# z* @) }( T+ i1 O/ W& {; D
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印度的人才流失是一个大问题:为了更快发展,工业化是关键。印度总理莫迪在他的“印度制造”计划中肯定深知这一点。然而,为了真正的发展工业化,我们要明白人才是种子,国内环境是土壤,政府政策是肥料,市场和外国投资是阳光和水。没有了“种子”,永远都不可能产生真正的工业化进步。这是印度最拖后腿的地方。; G7 i; U* {# _/ b. v: F

5 M  d+ y& T* j. k* R- w) e3 [# S0 _& pSo what is China doing differently?0 }; u" Z# |+ {, q
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那么中国是怎么做的?
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, f# @7 @# ?' m) R+ \, }: O4 ~: r# MI’ll first start with an example from my experience. Ever since I was in Cambridge, I have seen countless number of delegation and recruitment groups organised by the Chinese government coming here for seeking talents.
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( ^+ ~( m- Y7 ~- t0 B; ~# C5 X我先以自己的经历说明一下。自从我来到剑桥大学后,我见过中国政府组织了无数次的代表团和招聘团来这里寻找人才。, K. P+ `9 t) a+ m7 U$ g: x
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For example, a delegation team from a city called Wenzhou in Zhejiang province has recently visited Cambridge and Oxford. The deputy mayor of Wenzhou has gathered the CEO of 18 local companies from Wenzhou, 2 vice Chancellors of Wenzhou University, 3 officials from Wenzhou Business Incubator/Innovation Centers and 4 young entrepreneurs who just recently successfully started their company in Wenzhou. The delegation team held a formal dinner that invites all the Chinese talents for free and advertise their policies in attracting Cambridge Chinese graduates. During the dinner, the deputy mayor has his toast, that is “begging” us to settle in Wenzhou after graduation.2 U& P3 j7 b! W: z7 K
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比如,浙江温州的一个代表团最近去了剑桥和牛津。温州副市长带来了温州当地企业的18个CEO,2个温州大学的副校长,3名温州商业孵化/创新中心的官员,4个刚刚在温州开办公司的年轻企业家。这个代表团举办了一个正式的晚宴,免费邀请所有中国人才,宣传他们的政策,以吸引剑桥的中国毕业生。晚宴期间,副市长祝酒,请求我们毕业后定居温州。
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( \9 _  H! c/ J& [0 n& kIf you have great start up ideas, patents, technology and want to set up a company in Wenzhou, you will be granted:0 W: S8 D0 D  B8 ~) u* e; ^1 T
1 million RMB if the company is registered in Wenzhou
# n# h% j! P4 n8 }7 m& W8 G1 million RMB reserved for buying equipment and renting offices
; A) E9 I3 ?, V1 ]4 ]Discount rent for offices in the business incubator.0 ?  y* s  a; i7 [) s7 _
2 million in tax reduction for your company
/ l$ _8 Z% l5 t9 Y  m8 a1 million prize if your company gains huge growth and promoted Wenzhou economy/ {2 Z2 f( Y& a- s0 ?
The Wenzhou government is especially interested if you are majoring in Artificial Intelligence, Automatous Cars, New materials, Block Chains, Cyber security, Green Energy, and Smart cities. They have individual funds for those areas respectively.1 b3 D6 @: d. F, i8 Y4 Q

$ B! }; a/ b' ~! q7 @如果你有很好的初创想法,专利,技术,并且想在温州成立一家公司,那么你会获得:& u2 f$ C5 v5 K  ?+ m, Q; L% K
如果公司注册在温州,获得100万人民币- i# F3 x5 v: c- _+ R) s# l* j% P
100万人民币用于设备购买和办公室租用
, k. s2 R) o2 E3 }' s9 _5 m/ m办公室租金折扣: o& ~% |+ J8 V8 \0 o9 e
200万税收减免. o, \+ x  `7 ^6 L" Y% n
如果你的公司获得巨大的增长并且促进了温州经济,奖励100万, G+ t" Q2 A( r6 b
如果你的专业是人工智能,自动汽车,新材料,区块链,网络安全,绿色能源以及智能城市的话,温州政府更感兴趣。他们还为这些领域提供单独的资金。
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This is only the tip of the iceberg. This is only the talent policy from one of the many Chinese cities. Each city has its own policies. Typically, richer the city is, the more money you will be granted. The more companies registered, the more tax that city is able to collect. Then the local city can use the money from its tax payers and companies to attract more talents. And everything will be forming a positive cycle which is good for economy.
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这不过是冰山一角。这不过是中国众多城市中的一个城市所具有的人才政策。每个城市都有自己的政策。一般而言,城市越富有,你获得的钱越多。公司注册越多,城市所能收到的税越多。然后地方城市可以利用从纳税者和企业那里所获得的税金来吸引更多的人才。这一切将形成一个积极的循环,有利于经济。. ]- M% i: R; I  M/ n" y

$ g3 R1 @5 q  z" ~% IBecause the Chinese students/researchers studying abroad have already learnt most of the technology from the west. When they are heading back to China, they used the same technology, ideas and produced similar products. Most of the accusation is due to the migration of talents and not the actual stealing. But one thing is true: this is how China found its manufacturing power.
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因为在海外学习的中国学生和研究人员已经向西方学习了大部分的技术。当他们回到中国时,他们用的是同样的技术和想法,于是生产出了类似的产品。大部分的这些指责其实是人才回国造成的,而不是因为中国窃取。但是有一件事情是真的:中国就是如此建立了自己的制造业实力。
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How does China breed so many entrepreneurs?; l0 }& z* e3 E- A9 A& w# ]8 _
What factors are stifling the startup entrepreneurship ecosystem in China?
% v3 W- W! ~0 E7 ~/ ~' ]6 Q1 Y8 ]Because the Chinese government's policies are very entrepreneur-friendly and promote new startups with huge subsidies./ c5 a* d+ i, h7 @* [$ y
And similarly, this is how Taiwan, Korea and Japan used to do during their development stage. What are their common ground? In Chinese, Korean, Japanese and Vietnamese culture, or the “confucius sphere”, people pay huge respect to scholars and the talented instead of the religious leader. Even for the government including high ranking officials such as mayors, he has to travel across the world by himself and “beg” talent to contribute to his city .1 H. a. x( g( m  f  O- w3 U

% h/ c: Q7 U- w' @' E% L; M/ i为什么中国能产出这些多的企业家?什么因素在抑制中国的创业生态系统?. A! @* X# `. o2 [2 k
因为政策对企业家是非常友好的,用巨大的补贴来促进新的初创企业。
& o& v$ Z5 A5 |+ `% W6 m类似的,台湾,韩国,日本在他们的发展阶段也是这么干的。他们的共同点是什么?在中国,韩国,日本和越南文化里,或者儒家文化圈里,人们非常敬重学者和人才,而不是敬重宗教领袖。地方都得亲自远渡重洋请求人才来到自己的城市发展。% k, j7 d/ n3 z* X) H6 a
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Is there any chance that the mayors from Bengaluru, Pune, Ahmedabad, Surat etc. would travel to the world’s finest universities and beg those Indian graduates to come back to India? Currently I don’t see such events.' m+ Q) y% m, [4 x3 z& s6 _! N
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而印度各城市的那些市长们会来到世界上最好的大学请求这些印度学生回去印度吗?目前来看,我并没有见过。
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( w+ d' C" q8 w, IBhavesh Bang
* C! h( T5 A( ?6 w, V: P: Q1 GYou will be surprised to know that the political system in India is not imported from any other country. The politicians come from the society. Therefore, the problem is not political, it is cultural. A Chinese engineer, instead of abusing its politicians while waiting for his green card, would go back and fill the void in the system and play his part. An Indian engineer, on the other hand, would blame everything under the sun but not accept that he stays in the west to reap the benefits of an excellent system that is already in place. Remember that Chinese engineers to their credit have incredible projects like three gorges dam, Qinghai Tibet railway, vast high speed rail network including Maglev.
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你会惊讶的发现印度的政治体制并不是来源于其他国家。这些政客来自社会。因此,问题不是出在政治上,而是出在社会上。一个中国工程师不会在辱骂自己政客的同时等待自己的绿卡,他会回去填补体制里的空白,扮演自己的角色。而一个印度工程师会抱怨一切但是并不接受自己待在西方享有一切好处的事实。记住,中国工程师作出了伟大的项目,比如三峡大坝,青藏铁路,巨大的高铁网络包括磁悬浮列车。/ u5 X7 ~6 U/ r* a
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( 本文已被整理选入“国外译帖”栏目,欢迎大家访问:http://www.kanshij.com/community/country/UN/16983.html
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