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[转载] 免费的钱使人疯狂:芬兰给印度上的一课

Free money makes people lazy: A lesson for India from Finland- @: t/ _! T5 L  V
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Free money makes people lazy: A lesson for Indiafrom Finland6 D# O- b, b* E; W) K5 I0 c

0 J9 L- Z$ A  j7 D' v' P' {免费的钱使人疯狂:芬兰给印度上的一课9 P- x' k, G5 b: A+ o

* x  F2 v- C( F3 O/ Asleep
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9 {# m5 l' g+ X2 D: G/ LDistributing free money to theunemployed improves their well-being, but doesn’t appear to have anysignificant impact on their job prospects. 2 x, x2 V1 a( v9 R
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向失业人员发放免费补贴改善其生活福祉,但似乎对他们的就业前景没有任何重要影响。
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- V/ f& O. z; l0 Q8 k$ ]That’s according to thepreliminary results of a landmark experiment in Finland, the first country inthe world to trial a basic income at a national level. % m6 ^, G0 N! Y8 P/ s6 ^8 s

% ~3 f0 z8 {* h  x/ E! j这是根据芬兰一项具有里程碑意义的实验的初步结果得出的结论。芬兰是世界上第一个在国家层面上试行基本收入制度【译注:基本收入制度指的是,无收入水平限制,向所有公民都无条件给付最低限度生活费的制度。】的国家。
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The recipients did howeverreport “less stress symptoms as well as less difficulties to concentrate andless health problems than the control group,” said Minna Ylikanno, leadresearcher at Kela. “They were also more confident in their future and in theirability to influence societal issues.” 0 O$ ~3 Z' c9 T+ U3 p( K

* ?1 O& b8 D9 H+ y6 A( h% k9 o' x然而,Kela的首席研究员Minna Ylikanno说,与对照组相比,接受实验的人确实报告了“更少的压力症状、更少的注意力集中困难和更少的健康问题。他们对自己的未来和社会影响力也更有信心。”
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Kela’s results are set to addfodder to a debate that’s been intriguing political philosophers and economistsfor centuries: What happens when citizens are given money with no stringsattached? / E3 _3 a; x# }$ d0 f
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Kela的研究结果将为一场几个世纪以来一直引起政治哲学家和经济学家兴趣的辩论提供素材:如果公民被无条件地给予金钱的话会发生些什么?; t2 A- ?+ B1 S: p' F( t* A$ r! i
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Finland’s experiment wasimplemented by the government of Juha Sipila, the country’s first millionaireprime minister, between 2017 and 2018.
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芬兰的这项实验是由该国首位百万富翁总理Juha Sipila领导的政府在2017年至2018年间实施的。
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Despite solid economic growthand falling unemployment, Finland suffers from an aging population. The countryis seen as a trend-setter when it comes to social policy, with its educationsystem and baby boxes (containers full of baby clothes and care productsdelivered to expectant mothers) admired around the world. 9 O, M4 X: [& B
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尽管芬兰经济增长强劲,失业率下降,但人口老龄化问题依然存在。在社会政策方面,其被视为潮流的引领者,其教育体系和婴儿箱(东给孕妇的装满婴儿衣服和婴儿护理用品的容器)受到全世界的赞赏。2 u2 r6 @# @% H  k$ `# O) L( A* P
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According to some estimates, anationwide basic income would add around 5 percentage points to Finland’spublic deficit relative to gross domestic product.
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据估计,全国范围内的基本收入将使芬兰的公共赤字相对于国内生产总值增加约5个百分点。
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& S1 @& u' {  |5 b; q2 E3 jFriday’s preliminary resultsonly looked at the first year and focused on statistical data, with a finalreport not due until 2020. * h* j$ w: N! @; @$ r$ _/ c

; {( k/ l% R& T周五的初步结果只看了第一年的数据,而目前的重点放在统计数据上,最终报告要到2020年才能出炉。3 l) A6 a, A' H5 `1 c

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# u( G4 @8 k( o/ E/ \. ^* F, b) H评论翻译
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, F4 Y; k$ I3 K1 P* Y$ J, A- PSunder Swami7 R  I( w0 v$ d' h
...and lazy people become moretoo lazy to vote!
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0 M) N  C1 ^# o0 u+ [) K…而懒惰的人变得更加懒得投票!" F  o) V9 c+ I4 f& Y9 a/ r3 u
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Ragul Handi# ?+ e. r' C3 a: n* z  K
nonsense finland doesnt livein absolute poverty and none of em die of malnourishment 4 ^8 \5 ]: B) C2 ?( d+ N) u

  d# W3 \: y; g+ f0 Q胡说,芬兰并不生活在绝对贫困中,也没有人死于营养不良
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NIKHIL KAUSHIK
# g$ c; X# @& @- u9 aBut the recipients werephysically more fit and socially more active. Health benefits of citizens arepriceless. , h, u( m( S9 F
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但是受益者身体更健康,社交更活跃。公民的健康福利是无价的。
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Guru Nathan
% {- q4 i% d' G  O; zThere is a truth in it. Freemoney kills sprit to work in human being as it meets their daily minimumrequirements. That kills aspiration to grow and progress particularly amongless skilled people. Always believe basic income scheme should have stringsattached like skill development, education and it is meant for certain periodand if progress not shown progressive reduction in basi income etc.
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这是有道理的。免费的钱杀死了人类的工作精神,因为它满足他们的日常最低要求。这扼杀了增长和进步的愿望,尤其是在低技能人群中。始终认为基本收入计划应该有附加条件,如技能发展,教育,它是指在一定时期内,如果进步不明显那么基本收入制度福利就要逐步减少等。7 T* r5 a3 m" D# M. Y* q" @! v% {+ ]
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Taimur
* C4 S3 U2 S% d% {, ^0 L# WA message for dog Rahul 8 x) X9 q9 Z" |- l( \  W

0 z! R& x  h$ x% {; X+ a$ s5 N拉胡尔狗发的黑文; i3 J) U6 {5 ~6 S6 n* u

5 v% A% m1 G% w3 s7 ~& HGgnngg12. O( \" J  U' C, p
that is why Modiji''s policiesare correct....this patels' blackmailing, now gurjars blackmailing must bestopped...what Modiji has give 10% for ALL...what else could be better...Hegave 6000/- for seeds, etc for a year....means u will get only if u dofarming....means work for the society....WHAT ELSE GREAT POLICIES YOU WANT....thatis why thrash these dirty opposition parties....DEAR ALL..JUST UNCONDITIONALLYSUPPORT AND VOTE MODIJI AND BJP ONLY..then see how fast our country i.e. WEshall (ALL) progress...ALL means of all religions and castes..ALL such type ofvictimisation will also stop...because opposition themselves create suchsituations of chaos..and then start blaming BJP and others...like chor machayeshoor...wait for 2019..and let Modiji get majority in rajya sabha..all suchtypes of loot will be stopped..He has already done many great steps..after thispeople would like themselves to be honest by heart after seeing hisdedication..may He live Longest..AND most importantly..believe me..only Modijican do something for us...Vande Matram
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; x; F0 p; D& T% l" }* c这就是为什么莫迪姬的政策是正确的……帕特尔人的敲诈勒索,以及现在古吉尔人的敲诈勒索必须停止【译注:帕特尔人和古吉尔人都在追求其他落后阶层地位,这样就可以获得保留配额】……莫迪姬把10%的保留名额给了所有人…还有什么比这更好的…他还每年给6000卢比给你买种子种地等等【译注:莫迪姬在全年预算大会上提的新政策,计划将每年给小农户6000卢比的补贴】。意思是你只有种地才能得到……这意味着为社会工作……你还想要什么伟大的政策……这就是为什么要痛击这些肮脏的反对党……亲爱的所有人……只要无条件支持和投票给莫迪和人民党,然后就能看看我们的国家发展有多快,也就是说我们将(在所有方面)进步……所有宗教和种姓的一切手段、以及所有这类受害行为也将停止……因为反对派自己制造了这样的混乱局面,然后开始指责人民党和其他人……比如chor machaye shor【译注:在维基百科上只搜到一部电影,不知道啥意思】……等到2019年,让莫迪在印度议会获得多数席位。到那时,所有类型的洗劫将不复存在。他已经迈出了许多伟大的步伐。在此之后,人们希望自己在看到他的奉献之后能够发自内心的诚实起来。莫迪万岁。最重要的是……相信我……只有莫迪能为我们做点什么……向你致敬
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0 M; _$ H5 Y$ b回复Ven- Y$ o1 p# n# a" |& G! ]
Migtwentyonebis& W. ]: E' F  \
years? ,generations more tothe point. % i# T2 @' }1 Y0 Y+ q: e6 P
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数年?数代人还差不多。
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Suneil Nayagam" w  N7 X. c2 [8 s
Free cash for cronycapitalists could be a better idea+ w2 A+ w2 a; J' j+ V  K' R2 Z
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为裙带资本家提供免费现金可能是个更好的主意
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Shrinivasa Kamath7 R* T6 @- `( }2 ?" k( l5 V
Any assistance should belimited to a certain time period. But, in India our political parties arealways in a hurry and busy because there will be some election or other all thetime to keep them engaged to think of repercussions of their promises and acts.Instead of investing to create jobs, all our political parties find it easy todole out to the same poor people who remain poor all the time. They do not haveto work to make a living, though difficult. In this way reforms have no place.7 G2 L" j! P7 w: ~
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任何援助都应限于某一段具体的时间。但是,在印度,我们的政党总是忙于选举,或是把所有时间投入到考虑他们的承诺和行为的影响上。我们所有的政党发现,与其投资创造就业机会,还不如向那些一直贫穷的穷人发放救济金。他们不需要工作来谋生,尽管生活很困难。这样,改革就没有立足之地。( H. [2 x3 h4 s1 }7 ~- t

7 i8 ^" }) {* M) kBiswarup Ray, I. u& W) n. s" `' ^
In 21st century, becoming lazyshould be considered a birth right of human beings.
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在21世纪,变懒应该被认为是人类与生俱来的权利。
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Jyo
: C$ u. S, \  H9 z3 T% U6 z% D3 Nsearch in Google what's"write off" its not "waiving off" ... I was misguided bysome politicians like RaGa.. Write off is accounting term which mean the loanis transferred to another account where they can initiate process of recovery., |2 c6 I: R' w6 L' a$ r* a

( B$ t: Q, S+ V在谷歌中搜索什么是“勾销”而不是“放弃”……我被像拉胡尔·甘地这样的政客误导了。勾销是会计术语,意思是贷款被转到另一个账户,在那里他们可以启动回收程序。
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1 `# F: n3 `; e% r& M, p. Z7 MNatarajan D# q3 W; N) O8 I
Any freebies will make peoplelazy. It can be seen in TN people always protest for benefits, still peoplefight for gaja relief.
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2 t. K9 p+ c' L. W任何免费赠品都会使人懒惰。例如,泰米尔纳德邦的人民总是抗议福利,但仍然在为暴风灾害救济【译注:Gaja是去年底的飓风,袭击了泰米尔纳德邦】而斗争。
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* Q1 o  s. `9 R+ x% a$ [4 HDipak Sangameswaran
" k! A' Y  V" FTrain all those unemployed togain employment. Give them skills and stipend. Let them direct traffic andconstruct roads, schools and hospitals, train them to serve as assistants todoctors and policemen. Don''t make the people lazy but engage them in buildingour country.
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培训所有失业者以获得就业机会。给他们技能和津贴。让他们指挥交通,修建道路、学校和医院,培养他们成为医生和警察的助手。不要使人民懒惰,而要使他们致力于建设我们的国家。
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Rameswar Pattanayak0 u; p8 V7 r+ P
Government should make basiceducation and healthcare free and compulsory up to class 8 and primary medicalcare respectively in government run schools and hospitals. At the same timeGovernment should pullout from higher education and specialised treatment. % D! s# @$ {" y8 x& e  z7 Q3 C& f
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政府应在公立学校和医院实行免费和义务的基础教育和医保,最高可达八年级和初级医保。与此同时,政府应该从高等教育和专业治疗中退出。( O; T9 l, T0 M4 H& Y
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Jumbo0 c+ V3 E! T5 p8 ^
As though armchair analystsare earning money the hard way. Silly article.
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  E8 p6 T9 l- p* p就好像纸上谈兵的分析师正在艰难地赚钱。愚蠢的文章。6 @. }% l" r- f3 z

2 }: R9 K: q) R6 q. {# H) T6 pRajendran Thangavel
% y  z6 V! i7 M" W7 ^The same unemploymentsituation takes place in India which can be described as jobless growth. Thefreebies can be a temporary remedy, but can't be a cure. unfortunately the CGand some SGs misuse freebies for their political gain. Instead, thegovernment''s must think and strive to create jobs for the youth.
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同样的失业情况也发生在印度,可以称之为失业增长。免费赠品可以是暂时的补救办法,但治标不治本。不幸的是,国大党和一些其他政党为了他们的政治利益滥用免费赠品。相反,政府必须思考并努力为年轻人创造就业机会。, k  P' }5 q: `4 P3 C

, T- J0 b* T8 s  ^Ramaswami Narayan
! F5 f3 T, B5 I; A" ^7 y; nVery true. Finland need not becompared. Our country knows much more about freebies for votes and theresultant chaos 9 M$ o! o; K& I' Y$ d

" D7 d% F! a: o7 r, i/ U非常真实的。芬兰不需要拿来比较。我们的国家非常了解为了选票的免费赠品和随之而来的混乱( A5 s5 p1 W' a% I/ G
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Kishore Shivani% W* I8 c' d. T3 ]2 F6 _0 i1 ~9 ?
ALL PEOPLE WHO SURVIVE ONFREEBIES AND SUBSIDIES AND THOSE WHO ADVOCATE THE SAME FOR THEM SHOULD PLEASETAKE NOTE OF THIS4 m3 n& Y8 [% A( g) v' T' P

: n& d# O# Y# o0 f' e# H所有靠免费赠品和补贴生活的人,以及那些倡导免费赠品和补贴的人,都应该注意到这一点2 ^" {' M  Z* c

' K2 y' W, J6 ~6 J9 m' C8 [6 _Singh# l6 ~0 X& ?2 |9 z) f( a. K
Educated Indian youth who takethe risk and go abroad find work and many of them become top executives orbusinessmen. Many of those who depended on reservation policy of the CongressGovernment are jobless and living on hand outs. The Indian government shouldscrap reservation and base everything on merit, at the same time undertaking amassive upgrading of the outdated education and skill development programmesset up. Otherwise India is in big trouble in coming years
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受过教育的印度年轻人冒着风险去国外找工作,其中许多人成为高管或商人。许多依赖国大党政府保留政策的人失业了,只能靠救济金生活。印度政府应该取消保留制度,一切都以成绩为基础,同时对过时的教育和技能发展方案进行大规模的改进。否则,印度在未来几年将陷入大麻烦- ^; p' a7 f. p2 p2 [

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' A1 l- l+ E. f, i: dFREE money TURNS PEOPLE intoCROOKS, CHEATERS, LOOTERS, CRIMINALS and LAZY TOO, like PAPPU the GAPPU
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免费的钱会把人变成骗子,骗子,抢劫者,罪犯和懒惰,就像拉胡尔这个白痴
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Mohini Madhukar  Z3 Z0 F; n) Z! u) g$ B
Try to get casual labour toget any work done these days. Since they get food grains free or ridiculouslylow rates, they hardly come for work regularly. If you are not using them, checkwith those who do. Your Sonia Gandhi ruined this country, while busy looting6 f4 Y" z: w9 Z) i  u! w& O

; [# y+ ]! B, \: C( E如今尽量找些临时工把工作做完。由于他们可以免费获得粮食或低得可笑的税率,他们几乎不定期来上班。如果你不使用他们,和其他使用他们的人确认一下。你的索尼娅·甘地毁了这个国家,同时还忙于掠夺
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2 j7 p  Z" V$ c4 n% {Mohini Madhukar6 w* y# |. W, F7 Y* u
This is what Sonia Gandhi ashead of Advisory committee with hare brained members ,during UPA wanted. Insteadof offering food grains to poor people ,she advised MMS Govt to give free riceor at ridiculously low rates. She knew lazy people will not oppose looting ofthe country by congress party. Brilliant startegy na, mera deshwasio,by aforiegn lady ? 7 q# F4 L2 L2 i! j

7 c, [$ c, k; V9 X. C这正是国大党执政期间,索尼娅•甘地(Sonia Gandhi)与hare brained组成的咨询委员会主席所希望看到的。她建议辛格政府不要向穷人提供粮食,而是提供免费大米,或者以低得离谱的价格提供大米。她知道懒惰的人不会反对国大党抢劫国家。由一位外国女士想出来的完美政策,对吧,我的同胞们?& X* V: l% L; Z8 c* q& N. S8 @1 S! O
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( 本文已被整理选入“国外译帖”栏目,欢迎大家访问:http://www.kanshij.com/community/country/india/16997.html  )
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