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[转载] 由于对中国文化不了解,外国人最常犯的错误是什么?

My husband will soon start working for a Chinese company. He is concerned about social gaffes or offensive things he may say or do as a result of ignorance of Chinese culture. What are the most common mistakes made by foreigners?6 ?/ p  Z% D6 v" Y( Z2 \( w* D( G
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我丈夫不久将开始为一家中国公司工作。由于对中国文化不了解,他对自己可能说或做的失礼或无礼的事情感到担忧。外国人最常犯的错误是什么?
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7 K4 N, Q, i! ]' i评论翻译
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Matthew Tabor, lives in Luoyang, Henan, China (2017-present)3 k0 U5 ~6 e, J5 W
upxed Tue5 l: F4 A8 t. E9 L, C
Chinese people are very friendly and curious about foreigners. They are also very aware that Chinese is a difficult language for foreigners to learn and they do not expect foreigners to understand Chinese culture. It is extremely unlikely that anyone will be offended by your cultural misunderstandings. In fact, they know that foreigners don’t understand their culture and often find it extremely funny when we make mistakes. Sometimes they will even bait you into making a mistake only so that they can all laugh about it.
- n2 P$ t4 _7 Q! m  i! B0 g) l7 xHonestly, there are only a few things that might be genuinely offensive.: [, |/ a. o$ i1 K# H. h0 c
Don’t touch Chinese people on top of the head - I don’t know why this is so offensive, but it is. Some men won’t even let their wives touch their heads. I once had a student cry in my class after she got hit with a ball. I thought the ball had hit her too hard, but actually she was offended that the ball touched her head. She told her parents about it later and they were also very upset that I had allowed a ball to touch her head in my class.
9 F. T/ H! F7 E! b6 O0 {Never give anyone a green hat - No one knows the origin, but a green hat in China is a symbol of adultery. Some people will tell you it means “forgiveness,” but given someone a green hat can only mean that you cheated on them with someone else, or their partner cheated on them with you. If you wear a green hat, it means your partner cheated on you.) S  x' U$ G$ j# e
Don’t give a clock as a gift - A clock as a gift symbolizes that one is “on the clock” or that their time is almost up. It is an underhanded way of wishing for their early death. (Thanks to Wang Yinghui for fixing my mistake.)6 ^2 c, Y/ _, W$ c# U' F
Four is bad luck - Four 四 and death 死 are both pronounced “si” in Chinese, so many buildings don’t have a fourth floor and many restaurants don’t have Table #4. Never send anyone $44. If your bill comes out to 44.44, they will probably be happier to accept 39.99.
4 m# q7 j, O$ W3 fNearly all numbers have hidden meanings - This is not an exhaustive list at all, but here are a few examples.' T& t  {% s/ Z% o) C1 H
666 - The number six 六 and the word “skilled” or “awesome” 溜 are both pronounced “liu,” so younger Chinese people love yelling 666! and throwing the Chinese sign language symbol for six around. It looks like the western symbol for “call me.” Most Chinese people have no idea that 666 isn’t also a very lucky number in the west.# x" `& }" J# a$ J. G! N
520 and 1314 - These sound like “I love you” and “from life to death” (til death do us part), so they are very romantic numbers. If you send someone $5.20 or $13.14, it doesn’t matter where you move the decimal, they will think you have romantic intentions.! ^5 G! z2 D/ B1 n3 ]! x- e
Different colored flowers are for different occasions - I don’t remember which colors have which meanings, but thankfully most younger Chinese people don’t know either. I think red flowers are good for weddings and Valentine’s Day, and white or yellow flowers are for funerals, but I’m not very clear on this because younger people seem to have abandoned this tradition.
0 U/ v' M! Q% [1 f; E% i2 r' t( u- c9 dSB - SB can abbreviate “somebody,” but it is also shorthand for shabi 傻逼, which means “dumb cunt.” It is one of the two worst Chinese curse words. The USB port on a computer is a source of many jokes between young people who will say in English “I no SB, you SB!” I’m surprised that gifting someone a USB drive isn’t a faux pas yet.
4 k& H- I. V5 ALaughing - There are many characters that Chinese people use to express laughter, but not all of them are good. Hahaha 哈哈哈 is genuine laughter and xixixi 嘻嘻嘻 is often used by girls trying to be cute. However, hehe 呵呵 is not amused laughter. It is sarcastic or indignant, so be careful which characters you type when laughing online!
7 x" y4 S9 _9 ]6 DSmiling and waving - Westerners smile with their mouths, but Asians smile with their eyes, so we don’t always interpret expressions the same way, especially when sent as emojis in text based conversations. Look at the emojis that I’ve shared below. They are from WeChat, which you should already have if you are living in China. The emoji in the top left looks happy to most westerners, but Chinese people see it as smiling “down” at you, so it is not a friendly or approving smile. The emoji on the bottom left is a “genuine” smile, as you can see that the cheeks and eyes are affected. The waving emoji on the top right is also not a friendly wave. Again, you can see that it is looking down at you, so Chinese people see this as a form of dismissal or rejection, similarly to how a western adult might shoo away a child who is interrupting them during a phone call. I prefer using the excited “peace” waving emoji instead, as Chinese young people often do this when they are happy, or when they are trying to look happy in photographs.
& R& f; P. q! ^$ Y2 D$ @Even if you and your husband lose track of these from time to time, I’m sure you’ll both have an amazing stay in China!% c0 b# g: w& u; Z
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Matthew Tabor, 现居中国河南洛阳 (2017-至今)( c! v1 B. o  t' V
中国人对外国人很友好,也很好奇。他们也很清楚汉语对外国人来说是一门很难学的语言,他们不期待外国人能了解中国文化。你的文化误解不太可能冒犯到任何人。事实上,他们知道外国人不了解他们的文化,当我们犯错误的时候,他们会觉得非常有趣。有时他们甚至会引诱你犯错误,只是为了让他们嘲笑你。7 t' Z; B- @; a9 }. ~
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老实说,只有少数事情可能是真的冒犯。
! B( U/ H% F$ G  T+ l- O不要碰中国人的头——我不知道为什么这种行为非常无礼,但确实如此。有些男人甚至不让他们的妻子摸他们的头。我曾经有一个学生在我的课上被球击中后哭了。我以为球打得她太狠了,但实际上是因为球碰到了她的头,她很生气。后来她把这件事告诉了她的父母,他们也很生气,因为我在班上让一个球碰了她的头。
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: r8 m& g) Q9 G' ]微笑和挥手——西方人用嘴微笑,而亚洲人用眼睛微笑,所以我们对表情的理解并不总是一样的,尤其是在文本对话中作为表情符号发送的时候。看看我下面分享的表情吧。它们来自微信,如果你生活在中国,你应该已经有了。左上角的表情符号对大多数西方人来说是开心的,但中国人却把它看成是对你的“俯视的”微笑,所以它不是友好或赞许的微笑。左下角的表情符号是一个“真诚的”微笑,你可以看到脸颊和眼睛都受到了影响。右上角的挥手表情符号也不是友好的挥手。你可以看到它是在俯视你,所以中国人把这看作是一种拒绝的形式,就像一个西方成年人可能会把一个正在打断他们的电话的孩子赶走一样。因为中国的年轻人经常在开心的时候,或者在照片中试图看起来开心的时候使用表情符号。# }; C( _1 ~8 c8 A' O6 p" _& O

  a' t& L% S& j: T; Z' u0 M: b/ Y  ]EDIT: I just remembered two BIG cultural misunderstandings from when I first came to China.( k  r3 v: J. {2 y
No means yes - When a foreigner tells you no, that’s exactly what they mean. When a Chinese person tells you no, they mean they don’t want to inconvenience you. Even if a Chinese person actually does mean no, most other Chinese people will still treat it as if the rejection is the socially expected polite decline. Because of this, Chinese people often come off as rude when they continue to harass foreigners who’ve already explicitly rejected them. Men especially will often disregard your rejection completely and even lead you by the arm as if they are parents dragging around a non-compliant child. Yes, some of them actually are trying to take advantage of you, but also some of them really are trying to be polite by “helping” you to say yes. Foreigners think they are being explicit and clear when they say no to the following, but Chinese people treat these rejections as the beginning of a negotiation.
/ E1 R- Q6 S" ^, C9 x, _I cannot teach English at your school, because it’s illegal and violates my visa.  c- ^) X$ L0 u, d4 ~2 {
Chinese reply - “I think it’s okay.”
) m" x, J7 \! f: FStop taking pictures of me.1 F7 A& S: J$ }' h& ^' H
Chinese reply - “Now we together.”
* ]( O" _" f$ R$ A, x  j2 eI cannot go out drinking with you on Friday night, because I work on Saturday morning.6 S+ U9 ~9 E# @
Chinese reply - “I think it’s okay.”
- S9 d! Z8 i2 O' L- P" I, LI cannot go on a trip to another city with you because I am working.
' P& {. T8 Y5 [Chinese reply - “I will tell your boss you are busy.”
/ r7 J8 N3 ~9 F9 X. b# m4 `I cannot not ride home with you because you are drunk and I feel unsafe.. I8 ]" C% F( U9 W4 [7 a
Chinese reply - “The traffic police don’t work this late.”
' Y) F; N, u! c. O+ \( uI will not go on a date with you.  @6 P& e3 Z1 ^1 e3 Y- E7 {
Chinese reply - “I have a car.”
7 ~- J% c) ?' ^4 cDon’t touch me! (This one probably explains why China is having such a difficult time adapting to the #metoo movement.)
% Q8 z6 E' i2 D% O4 q9 J7 CChinese reply - “I like you.”6 t/ L2 q5 ^' f7 ?8 r8 @( A' K
It’s not gay in China, except when it is - A lot of Chinese men hug each other and hold hands when they are drinking, and they are much more affectionate and physical with each other than western men are. Chinese men also frequently share a hotel room together when they are traveling and even sleep in the same bed. When I first came to China, I didn’t want to be rude, so I tolerated a lot more hugging and hand holding than I should have. While most of the Chinese men are just being friendly, some of them are actually gay and predatory. In fact, several men have even tried to kiss me and acted offended when I did not allow it, and insisted that I should kiss them because “we are friends.” (see no means yes) They know that you are just trying to be polite and they will take full advantage of that.
1 B% Y" @9 L6 {' v" }0 bTL;DR - Be respectful but DO NOT tolerate harassment. Chinese people are polite and they will not violate your boundaries intentionally. Any Chinese people who repeatedly try to violate your boundaries are probably targeting you because they’ve already been rejected by other Chinese people.$ G1 z: F( Q. N& u4 f7 p

9 Z4 x5 i+ `8 M即使你和你的丈夫有时会忘记这些,我相信你们都会在中国过得很愉快!; x3 _. }' D6 B& }9 d" ?0 j% e' Y
补充:我想起我刚来中国的时候,两大文化上的误解。
7 K$ ^7 D5 B2 S; \$ `2 L+ k3 q不意味着“是”——当一个外国人对你说“不”的时候,那正是他们的意思。当一个中国人对你说“不”的时候,他们的意思是不想给你带来不便。即使一个中国人的意思是“不”,大多数中国人仍然会把拒绝看作是社会所期望的礼貌的拒绝。正因如此,在那些拒绝了中国人的外国人看来,不停地骚扰看起来很粗鲁。尤其是男人,他们通常会完全无视你的拒绝,甚至会牵着你的胳膊,就像父母拖着一个不听话的孩子一样。是的,他们中的一些人实际上是想利用你,但也有一些人确实是想通过“帮助”来表示礼貌。外国人认为他们在拒绝以下事情时是很明确的,但是中国人把这些拒绝当做谈判的开始。
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1)我不能在你的学校教英语,因为这有违我的签证。——中国人回应道:“我认为这没问题。”# M4 S9 t1 G( }( j
2)不要再给我发照片了。——中国人回应道:“现在,我们在一起的啊。”
0 v. F. X" X9 Q( q5 y/ U. s$ y0 u8 w3)周五晚上我没法跟你一起出去喝酒,因为我周六早上要上班。——中国人回应道:“我觉得这没问题啊。”
5 a5 U" c4 I: F' b4 s* Q1 _/ w4)我没法跟你一起去别的城市旅游,因为我在上班。——中国人回应道:“我会告诉你老板你正忙。”  J) V" K6 o3 B4 E. ?, ?
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David Phillipson, lives in China (2013-present)
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& ?- l0 y8 T8 PHonestly, it’s a minefield here. Even after several years I still do things that people laugh at.8 E/ S% M9 ?5 M! }& N. D( ?
Basically, just being foreign is enough for many. They don’t mean it in malice. But even today, foreign people in China are still quite an annomally.# _# ]8 [/ o# ~9 e3 P
Simply saying a friendly hello to people who say it to you in public can lead to guffaws of laughter from the other party.
" G. o, d( T% C. O) EUsing chopsticks is difficult for many foreign people here too. Much to the amusement of Chinese hosts at any one of the very many and also countless lunch or dinner invitations we get invited too. I’m glad I learned how to use them long before I came to China.
" I' C8 A! O/ v. l* ~0 I# m' mIf he owns a green hat or cap of any kind, tell him not to bring it with him.
+ Z) i' [9 r% p6 E: S% _Also whenever bargaining prices on anything, avoid using the number 250 as it sounds like the word stupid when said aloud. Again, more laughter at the expense of the foreign person.
* t9 U  g& d" ^/ F, IIf anyone asks are you “SB”? Don’t say yes. It does not stand for “somebody” it means you are an “idiot”.
, K5 S# a0 u7 E4 E% G3 LBest thing he can really do, is have a lot of patience, and an ability to take everything with a pinch of salt.8 o& Y. l3 j1 r
The people of China are extremely friendly, and very welcoming of guests into their lives and homes all the time. Sure they laugh at us from time to time, but it is a taboo if we laugh at them in return for anything.
2 `3 @6 y$ I/ u+ t! I0 b+ C9 j7 ERegardless of all that though, I absolutely love living here. It’s truly one of (if not THE) most culturally rewarding experiences of my life and I would not change it for anything in the world.
8 W6 z! ?+ B; n, qI hope your husband enjoys himself here just as much as so many of us already do.
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David Phillipson, 在中国生活 (2013-至今), v# p: v1 o* I  g" H+ R. V
老实说,这里是个雷区。即使过了几年,我仍然会做一些被人们嘲笑的事情。基本上,对很多人来说,只要是外国人就足够了。他们不是恶意的。但即使在今天,在中国的外国人仍然是反常。0 m/ f6 Z1 w# u$ [7 P
对那些在公共场合对你说“你好”的人简单地说一句“你好”,就能让对方哄堂大笑。
- R- N3 W9 e! e, T3 B8 G在这里使用筷子对许多外国人来说也很困难。在众多的午餐或晚餐邀请中,我们也会被邀请。我很高兴在我来中国之前很久就学会了如何使用它们。  f" P* X" b' K0 X1 K" V0 P

& o. Y* A5 ?+ h4 f  E0 Q此外,如果他有一顶绿色帽子,告诉他不要带在身边。还有,无论什么时候砍价,都不要使用250这个数字,因为它听起来像“愚蠢”这个词。再一次,更多的笑声是以外国人为代价的。
1 S" h8 f" L$ J3 @" E0 }# l如果有人问你是“SB”吗?不要说没错。它不代表“某人”,它意味着你是一个“白痴”。刚来中国的外国人能做的最好的事情,就是有足够的耐心,并且有能力对任何事情都将信将疑。5 ^% ]$ o) [# M, R0 m
中国人民非常友好,总是非常欢迎客人进入他们的生活和家庭。当然,他们时不时地嘲笑我们,但如果我们为了任何东西而嘲笑他们,这是一个禁忌。4 Q% p$ h1 |" ~$ ]  A
尽管如此,我还是非常喜欢住在这里。这确实是我人生中最有文化价值的经历之一,我不会为世界上的任何事情改变它。我希望你的丈夫能像我们许多人一样在这里过得愉快。
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Tim Dietz
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4 |9 r$ U3 t# LOn my first business trip to Shanghai I realized at one point during our group lunch that people were remarking to each other while looking at my chopsticks and I became very self conscious about it, but finally one of them explained that I stood out because they were amazed at how natural I looked using chopsticks left-handed. I had no idea that was so rare. From that point on whenever they turned the turntable to get me to try a particular dish they would make point of making sure the 公筷 landed by my left hand and giggled.# V3 ~: D% P1 T1 o. Q. ~4 |

  p$ b$ `# H9 G' `, B7 s1 \( r第一次出差到上海的时候,在我们共进午餐的时候我突然注意到大家都对我的筷子指指点点,我很在意,不过最后他们解释道,注意到我的原因是因为他们惊讶地发现我能熟练地左手使用筷子。; Y7 ~) |$ Y: @4 B- b
我不知道这是如此罕见。从那之后,每当他们把转转盘让我尝试特定菜的时候,他们会确保公筷正好在我的左手边,然后咯咯发笑。) F( j8 u% @# D3 R! k* v/ L
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John Chow, Australian Expatriate in Hong Kong since 2012- M( p: ^/ i( I7 p# x( r. ]- f( K
Answered 17h ago9 q. D/ L; s+ Q2 A% {; p
I’m an Australian Asian living in Hong Kong. Plenty of good answers about what to do and what not do. But honestly as a non Chinese, as long as you aren’t running about pulling the sides of your eyes, you will get away with many of these, as Chinese don’t really expect non Chinese to do Chinese things, and many things will be laughed off.7 C! P* g! v+ x0 M2 ^* y
One important consideration is team work and conflict resolution in the work place. Chinese people are very big on Face.
2 k: y5 M% r! m: p1 L8 JWestern cultures tend to teach people to be be open to criticism and feedback. Chinese culture is very much the opposite. People will take offense to being corrected in front of their peers, and will be very embarrassed if called out. You won’t know they are offended, but they will keep it to themselves and get back at you later on when you aren’t expecting it.
4 F& v9 i' X0 W3 G, V2 G9 X; c9 h# bUnless you are specifically trying to make a statement or a political move in the workplace, I would avoid direct conflict as a means of resolving disagreements.$ D. Z7 G$ H7 ~! H
A lot of the resolution happens through gestures, and through subtleties. You will find this inefficient and frustrating probably. And will find a lot of “hot air” in meetings with minimum discussion. This is due to face; people cautious not to correct others and people avoiding at all costs saying things that are wrong.+ E; O9 [8 @7 h% @+ C- W
If you can navigate that , you’ll probably be fine.* a, y4 u3 N6 v/ T2 n/ [
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John Chow,自2012年移居香港的澳大利亚亚裔( \$ A$ D9 Q4 m
我是住在香港的澳籍亚洲人。关于该做什么和不该做什么,有很多好的答案。但老实说,作为一个非中国人,只要你不四处瞎转,你就能逃过许多这样的惩罚,因为中国人并不真的期望非中国人做中国的事情,而且很多事情会被一笑置之。
2 w6 t8 H1 K$ J一个重要的考虑因素是团队合作和工作场所的冲突解决。中国人十分在意面子。
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西方文化倾向于教导人们接受批评和反馈。中国文化恰恰相反,人们会因为在同伴面前被纠正而生气,如果被纠正,他们会很尴尬。# N5 y  v+ B4 w
你不会知道他们被冒犯了,但他们会把这件事留在心底,然后在你不期望的时候报复你。除非你特别想在工作场所发表一项声明或采取政治行动,否则我会避免用直接冲突来解决分歧。
- T* N2 X" K- F, |0 R6 z. L很多解决方案都是通过手势和微妙的方式实现的。你可能会发现这是低效和令人沮丧的。他们会在讨论很少的会议中发表很多“空话”。 这都是由于面子,人们谨慎地不去纠正别人,人们不惜一切代价避免说错话。1 C6 T- Z' o( g0 D
所以如果你能驾驭它,你可能会相安无事。& J! e- @5 k7 h
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Carsten Junge# B$ _+ q. F8 }" p
18h ago · 4 upvotes
( C! G+ j) P( ?) u1 X- I' @Don’t shout, don’t raise your voice.
) W' y1 L; R' p: madding to the above: If you need to call out something, do it in private and in confidence so as not to embarres anyone.! ^7 J% d3 r3 B4 }/ ]% i$ D

4 N8 u* m2 Y$ h5 Q" Z; o& j1 X1.别大喊大叫,别提高嗓门。
4 p$ f, ^+ W2 v! H0 Q6 }2.如果你想要指出某事,私底下做,以免让任何人感到尴尬。' T# W7 v  [6 Y! T
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Allen Allington, former Career Counselor and 50 years of world traveling.
6 r+ z+ L/ w( {Answered 14h ago: B( C& m& y% g8 ^6 A7 @
I did everything wrong but they still love me and a big Chinese family allowed me to marry into the family:-)
: ~4 p: d1 M7 {; _, B! V9 w0 }/ vThe Chinese are very forgiving and there is no way a foreigner could possibly know all the little nuances of the culture. Read up on tips in any travel guide like Frommers or Lonely Planet.2 _' \  ]) z. _' _( j
DO NOT try to out drink any Chinese person from the biggest guy to the smallest women. You won’t win! Learn the ““social” expectations of smoking.. really… it’s important to know.
. b5 \; n, K  v  i6 I) I( ?Like others have said… be respectful and try to learn at least a dozen words and short phrases of mandarin..
* q7 s  o7 i! N8 TBTW: the street food is safe, cheap and delicious
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Allen Allington, 前职业顾问,50年的世界旅行
/ W& C& O- O# i我做错了每一件事,但他们仍然爱我,一个中国大家庭允许我加入他们的家庭。中国人非常宽容,一个外国人不可能了解中国文化的所有细微差别。读读Frommers或Lonely Planet等旅游指南中的小贴士。
6 n$ t0 |0 m- g1 U4 X+ L2 I不要试图去喝赢任何中国人,从大块头到小个子的女人。你不会赢!了解吸烟的“社会”期望,真的,知道这些很重要。
# P* w6 l: @2 i4 E7 M! o: a1 N正如其他人说过的……要有礼貌,尽量学习至少十来个普通话的单词和短语。7 U' D7 E9 z7 u8 o$ v
顺便一说:街头食物安全,便宜又美味。$ ^* N) w* L2 J( S, Z8 f: u

! V  h0 B5 ~6 a/ H2 s' g0 d( 本文已被整理选入“国外译帖”栏目,欢迎大家阅读:http://www.kanshij.com/community/country/UN/17485.html
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