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美国专家称新冠病毒可以漂浮在空气中,要戴口罩!


America Can''t Afford to Lose More Black Male Doctors
译者:unknown     发布时间:2020-10-29     超过 0 位网友阅读

戴上口罩,远离他人,避免和一大群人在外面见面。不需要恐慌




Coronavirus can float in air and WHO and CDC should tell people that, experts say
July 06, 2020

专家称,世卫组织和疾控中心应该告诉人们新冠病毒可以漂浮在空气中
2020年7月6日

美国专家称新冠病毒可以漂浮在空气中

(CNN) Imagine a noisy, crowded bar. Music is pounding, and people are clustered close together, talking loudly or even shouting to be heard. If it''s cold out, doors and windows are shut tight and the heat is on, or if it''s hot out, everything is shut and the air conditioner is recirculating the air.

(CNN)想象一下一个喧闹拥挤的酒吧。音乐声震耳欲聋,人们挤在一起,大声说话,甚至大声喊叫以便让别人听到。如果外面天气很冷,门窗紧闭,暖气开着;如果外面很热,门窗都关着,空调一直开着,空气在循环。

This, in Donald Milton''s opinion, is the perfect situation for spreading coronavirus.

在唐纳德·弥尔顿看来,这种环境更加适合新冠病毒的传播。

Not only could people pass the virus directly from one to another in the little droplets that we all spray to one degree or another when we talk, laugh or sing; but those little droplets also go up into the air where, Milton says, they can float around for at least some time.

人们不仅可以通过微小的飞沫直接将病毒从一个人传播到另一个人,而且当我们说话、大笑或唱歌时,我们都会不同程度的喷洒这些飞沫;而这些小水滴也会飞到空中,弥尔顿说,它们至少可以在空中漂浮一段时间。

It''s not a secret, but agencies seem to be afraid to talk about the airborne nature of the virus, Milton said.

这不是秘密,但各种机构似乎害怕谈论这种病毒能够通过空气传播的属性,弥尔顿说。

"The airborne transmission word seems to be loaded," Milton, one of two main authors of the letter, told CNN.

弥尔顿是这封信的两位主要作者之一,他在接受CNN采访时表示:“通过空中传播的文字似乎是不可信的。”

"The current guidance from numerous international and national bodies focuses on hand washing, maintaining social distancing, and droplet precautions," Milton and colleagues wrote in the letter, published in the journal Clinical Infectious Diseases.

弥尔顿和他的同事在这封发表在《临床传染病》杂志上的信中写道:“目前来自众多国际和国家机构指导都集中在洗手、保持社交距离和防滴等方面。”

"Most public health organizations, including the World Health Organization, do not recognize airborne transmission except for aerosol-generating procedures performed in healthcare settings. Hand washing and social distancing are appropriate, but in our view, insufficient to provide protection from virus-carrying respiratory microdroplets released into the air by infected people," they added.

"大多数公共卫生组织,包括世界卫生组织,不承认空气传播,除非是在卫生保健设备中形成的气溶胶产生的过程。适当的洗手和保持社交距离,但在我们看来,不足以保护人们不受感染者从呼吸道中释放到空气中的并且携带病毒的微滴所感染。”

''They don''t want to talk about airborne transmission because that is going to make people afraid''

他们不想谈论空气传播,因为那会让人们害怕

"I guess we are hoping that WHO will come around and be more willing to acknowledge the important roles of aerosols, whether they want to call it airborne transmission or not," Milton said.

弥尔顿说:“我想我们希望WHO能接受,更愿意承认气溶胶的重要作用,不管他们是否愿意称之为空气传播。”

Milton studies the airborne transmission of viruses. The other main author, Lidia Morawska, is a professor of environmental engineering and an expert in aerosol science at the Queensland University of Technology in Brisbane, Australia. Milton said they and a group of other, similar experts have been discussing the potential airborne transmission of coronavirus since February.

弥尔顿研究的是病毒在空气中的传播。另一位主要作者莉迪亚·莫劳斯卡是澳大利亚布里斯班昆士兰科技大学的环境工程教授和气溶胶科学专家。弥尔顿说,自今年2月以来,他们和其他一些类似的专家一直在讨论新冠病毒可能通过空气传播的问题。

Milton said the group wants to demystify the word so that health agencies will be less fearful about using it.

弥尔顿说,该组织希望揭开这个词的神秘面纱,这样卫生机构就不会那么害怕使用它。

"The best vaccine against fear is knowledge and empowering people to take care of themselves," Milton said. "I want them to understand to what extent washing their hands is important. Why wearing a mask is important is because it blocks the aerosols at their source, when it is easy to block them." It''s harder to block aerosols once they are floating in the air, he said.

弥尔顿说:“对抗恐惧的最佳疫苗是知识和让人们有能力照顾自己。”“我想让他们明白洗手在多大程度上是重要的。戴口罩之所以重要,是因为它能从源头阻隔气溶胶,而其实很容易阻隔它们。”他说,一旦气溶胶漂浮在空气中,就很难阻止它们。

The virus is carried on droplets that come out of people''s mouths and noses, and the sizes of those droplets vary. Large droplets fall onto surfaces rapidly and can be picked up on fingers and carried to the eyes, nose or mouth. Smaller droplets can stay in the air longer, and can be inhaled more deeply into the lungs.

病毒通过人的口鼻飞沫传播,飞沫大小不一。大的液滴迅速落在表面上,可被手指捡起,带到眼睛、鼻子或嘴巴。更小的飞沫可以在空气中停留更长时间,也可以更深地吸入肺部。

"There is significant potential for inhalation exposure to viruses in microscopic respiratory droplets (microdroplets) at short to medium distances (up to several meters, or room scale), and we are advocating for the use of preventive measures to mitigate this route of airborne transmission," Milton and his colleagues wrote.

“我们有很大的能力阻止人们在短距离到中等距离接触时吸入空气中带有病毒的微小飞沫,同时我们提倡预防措施,以减轻这种空气传播”弥尔顿和他的同事写道。

"For example, at typical indoor air velocities, a 5 nanometre droplet will travel tens of meters, much greater than the scale of a typical room, while settling from a height of 1.5 metres (about five feet) to the floor."

“例如,在典型的室内空气速度下,一个5纳米的液滴将移动数十米,而这个距离比一个典型房间的尺度大得多,同时从1.5米(约5英尺)的高度沉降到地面。”

What''s not clearly understood is how important droplet size is to coronavirus transmission, Milton said.

弥尔顿说,目前尚不清楚的是,小水滴的大小对于新冠病毒的传播有多大影响。

But studies show it''s a factor, Milton added. "A lot of people crowded close together indoors where it is poorly ventilated -- that is what drives the pandemic," he said. A loud bar, where people must raise their voices to be heard, is a perfect storm of close contact, poor air circulation and people generating a lot of virus-carrying particles by talking, laughing and shouting.

但研究表明这是一个因素,弥尔顿补充道。他说:“很多人挤在通风不良的室内,这是导致疫情蔓延的原因。”一个嘈杂的酒吧,在这里人们必须提高自己的声音才能被听到,密切接触,空气流通不良,人们说话,笑,大喊产生大量携带病毒的颗粒。

Advice to avoid coronavirus transmission

避免新冠病毒传播的建议

But Milton said there are other ways, too, including improved ventilation, as well as distancing and mask use. And that''s information the average person, as well as health care professionals, can use and act on.

但弥尔顿说,还有其他方法,包括改善通风、保持距离和使用口罩。这是一般人,以及卫生保健专业人员都可以使用和采取的行动。

"I am very much concerned about the general public and schools and ventilation in school buildings and in dorms on college campuses and in bars and in churches and where people sing and where people congregate," he said.

他说:“我非常关注公众、学校、学校建筑、大学校园宿舍、酒吧和教堂的通风情况,以及人们唱歌和聚集的地方。”

The group gives practical advice in its letter.

该小组在信中提出了切实可行的建议。

· Supplement general ventilation with airborne infection controls such as local exhaust, high efficiency air filtration, and germicidal ultraviolet lights. (These would be placed high up in the ceiling to avoid damage to people''s eyes and skin)

·通过局部排气、高效的空气过滤和紫外线灯杀菌等空气感染控制措施来补充一般的通风。(这些将被放置在天花板的高处,以避免伤害人们的眼睛和皮肤)

· Avoid overcrowding, particularly in public transport and public buildings.

·避免过度的拥挤,特别是在公共交通和公共建筑。

"Such measures are practical and often can be easily implemented; many are not costly," they wrote.

“这些措施是切实可行的,往往很容易执行;很多并不昂贵,”他们写道。

"For example, simple steps such as opening both doors and windows can dramatically increase air flow rates in many buildings."

“例如,在许多建筑中,一些简单的步骤,比如打开门窗,可以显著增加空气流量。”

In a car, Milton advises, open windows and make sure the air conditioning or heat is not recirculated but set to include outside air.

弥尔顿建议,开车时打开窗户,确保空调或暖气没有再循环,而是将外部空气流动进来。

In buildings, carbon dioxide monitors can help managers know if the air is being refreshed properly, Milton said. Outdoors in an urban area, he said, carbon dioxide levels are about 350 parts per million in the air. Exhaled breath carries about 38,000 parts per million of carbon dioxide. Indoors, he said, if the air has 1,000 parts per million carbon dioxide content or less, "that''s pretty good," Milton said.

弥尔顿说,在建筑物中,二氧化碳监测器可以帮助管理者了解空气是否得到了适当的净化。他说,在城市户外,空气中的二氧化碳含量约为百万分之350。人们呼出的空气中含有大约38,000 ppm的二氧化碳。他说,在室内,如果空气中的二氧化碳含量低于百万分之一千,“那就很好了,”米尔顿说。




Jode
What do the other thousands of experts say

其他成千上万的专家怎么说



Rose dilley
As I suspected some time ago - it sounds like one of the ways TB was transmitted. So, wearing a mask protects you ''and'' others.

就像我之前怀疑的那样,这听起来像是结核病传播的一种方式。所以,戴口罩可以保护你和其他人。



Toxicmaletraits
Please do not mix science with social egineering. Not your job Geek Squad. Just the facts peer reviewed. Thank you for you contribution which honestly has been minimal. We have national admin MIA and the scientific community needs to step up or what good are you.

谢谢你的贡献,但这实在是微不足道的。我们有国家管理MIA和科学界都需要站出来,否则你有什么好处。



Nathan G
Their intention is to inform. Your interpretation is to panic. This further supports the masks to suppress the virus by limiting the amount of particulates released into the air. Wear a mask, stay away from others, avoid large groups, and meet outside. No panic needed.

他们的目的是通知民众。你的解释是恐慌的。这进一步支持了通过口罩来限制释放到空气中的微粒数量以此来抑制病毒的传播。戴上口罩,远离他人,避免和一大群人在外面见面。不需要恐慌。


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