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Why America Should Lose Sleep Over Greenland
译者:unknown     发布时间:2018-12-04     超过 0 位网友阅读



Why America Should Lose Sleep Over Greenland (Think China)



Beijing is very interested in the world's largest island—and here's what that means for Washington.


Ask a Dane about independence for Greenland, and you’re likely to see a lot of eye rolling. Yes, Greenland has had home rule since 1979, and self-rule since 2009, and it’s logical to assume the next step is complete independence, however impractical, for a vast territory of only 56,000 inhabitants. But the real issue for the world’s largest island is not independence from Denmark—but rather increasing dependence on China. Americans should be aware of China’s designs on Greenland and understand the implications of what could become a sustained and heavy investment. As a counterweight, the United States could play a significant role in Greenland’s future, if only it would pay attention.


Greenland’s upcoming parliamentary election on April 24 would be a good place to start. The thirty-one-seat parliament is comprised of five political parties, and the primary issues are fishing, climate change and foreign investment. There are darker issues too—familiar to Greenland’s fellow Arctic communities in Canada and Alaska—societal ills such as drugs, alcoholism and lack of opportunity for the youth. The “when” question of independence is a constant underlying factor in Greenland’s politics, followed closely by the pragmatic “how” question of paying for it. Greenland still receives a Danish subsidy of $500 million annually, roughly half of Greenland’s budget, and is wide open to ideas on how to become self-sufficient.

格陵兰即将于4月24日举行的议会选举将是一个很好的开端。 三十一个席位的议会由五个政党组成,主要问题是捕鱼、气候变化和外国投资。 在加拿大和阿拉斯加,格陵兰的北极社区同伴们也很熟悉这些问题ーーdu品、酗酒和青年缺乏机会等社会弊病。 "何时"问题是格陵兰政治中一个不变的潜在因素,紧随其后的是务实的"如何"支付问题。 格陵兰每年仍然得到丹麦5亿美元的补贴,大约是格陵兰预算的一半,并且对如何实现自给自足的想法持宽泛态度。


The joker in the deck is climate change. A generation ago talk of far-flung economic activity would have been a hypothetical exercise. No one was interested in a land covered in mile-deep ice. But today’s accelerated rate of melt is changing the ground under the feet of every Greenlander. Only 80 percent of the territory is ice-covered, a percentage that declines each year. Examples abound on how warming and melting have already made an impact: root crops flourish in the southernmost part of the island; the retreat of glaciers reveals stunning scenery ripe for tourists, if only infrastructure to accommodate them existed. The awakening landscape also reveals opportunities for mining and industry—opportunities that should be seized by the United States.


Greenland is well aware that it needs foreign investment, and is in no position to be choosy. Greenland sees tourism as a path toward independence, and it views its neighbor Iceland with admiring eyes. Also a former Danish colony, Iceland carved a fertile niche market for tourism. As one of the countries hardest hit by the 2009 global financial crisis, it reinvented itself as an unspoiled tourism destination, growing the sector from 600,000 visitors in 2000 to 1.8 million by 2016, with all the attendant problems large numbers of tourists bring to a tiny country of only 335,000 people. Problems, Greenland says, it would love to have. 

格陵兰清楚地意识到它需要外国投资,而且没有选择的余地。 格陵兰认为旅游业是通往du立的良好道路,它以羡慕的眼光看待它的邻国冰岛。 作为一个前丹麦殖民地,冰岛用旅游业创造了一个富饶的利基市场。 作为受到2009年全球金融危机打击最严重的国家之一,它将自己重新定义为一个未被破坏的旅游目的地,从2000年的60万游客增加到2016年的180万人,大量游客涌入一个只有33.5万人的小国,随之而来的是各种问题。 格陵兰说,如果有问题的话,它会很乐意。

And China would love to help. Economic investment in the Arctic is fully in line with its first Arctic Policy paper released in January, and its determination to exercise power as a “near-Arctic state” is fully in evidence in its economic diplomacy in Greenland.


Prime Minister Kim Kielsen led a delegation to Beijing in October 2017 to explore ways to deepen ties. Chinese firms are interested in expansion of three of Greenland’s airports, including runway lengthening and infrastructure development essential for fledgling tourism. Chinese firms also have invested in Greenland’s mineral sector which has become more accessible thanks to climate change. Greenland has issued more than fifty permits for exploration, many of them to Chinese firms. Rare earth elements, uranium, and zinc are under development at Kvanefjeld by an Australian-Chinese partnership. An Australian firm planning to mine zinc just signed an MOU with a Chinese firm, and a Hong Kong–based company holds rights to a potential iron mine. China is also constructing a scientific research base and satellite station. This heavy courtship from China threatens to swamp Greenland’s tentative steps into the global marketplace.

2017年10月,Kim Kielsen 总理率领代表团访问北京,探讨如何深化两国关系。 中国公司有意扩建格陵兰岛的三个机场,包括延长跑道和改造基础设施建设,这对于刚刚起步的旅游业至关重要。 中国公司也在格陵兰的矿产部门投资,由于气候变化,这一行业变得更加容易获得。 格陵兰已经发放了超过五十份勘探许可证,其中许多发给了中国公司。 澳大利亚-中国合作伙伴正在 Kvanefjeld 开发稀土元素、铀和锌。 一家计划开采锌矿的澳大利亚公司刚刚与一家中国公司签署了一份谅解备忘录,这家总部位于香港的公司拥有开发潜在的铁矿的权利。 中国还在建设科研基地和卫星站,这种来自中国的强烈追求,可能会使格陵兰在全球市场的试探性举措陷入困境。

Not all are happy with the sudden Chinese interest. When a Chinese firm tried to buy an abandoned U.S. naval base in late 2016, Denmark, still in charge of Greenland’s foreign and defense policies, stepped in at the eleventh hour to block the sale. A large Chinese presence on the island would challenge remaining Danish links, compromise fragile political institutions and potentially exert undue influence as the dominant foreign investor. China’s interest is not solely economic—it seeks influence in Artic affairs and Greenland is increasingly looking like a soft entry point. With Denmark as a founding member of NATO, Greenland’s geostrategic contribution to the alliance has been taken for granted. As a future independent country, Greenland might well choose to loosen the bounds of an alliance that has taken much and given little. That would be a severe loss, and one the United States should strive to prevent.

并非所有人都对中国的突然兴趣感到满意。 2016年年底,当一家中国公司试图收购一个被遗弃的美国海军基地时,仍然负责格陵兰外交和国防政策的丹麦介入,在最后一刻介入,阻止了这笔交易。中国在岛上的大量存在将挑战格陵兰与丹麦的剩余联系,损害脆弱的政治体制,并有可能作为主要的外国投资者施加不当影响。 中国的兴趣不仅仅在于经济——它寻求在北极事务中的影响力,而格陵兰岛看起来越来越像一个容易突破的切入点。 由于丹麦是北约的创始成员,格陵兰对北约的地缘战略贡献被视为理所当然。 作为一个未来的du立国家,格陵兰很可能会选择放松联盟的限制,这个联盟已经付出了很多,却付出很少。 这将是一个严重的损失,美国应该努力防止这种损失。

China’s forays look all the more worrisome because Greenland’s overtures toward Europe have been surprisingly unproductive. It has probably exhausted all that it can expect from the stale postcolonial relationship with Denmark, weighted by language and cultural identity disputes and quarrels over self-reliance vs. old world paternalism. Greenland’s experience with the EU was also an unhappy one. It left in 1985, frustrated over unrealistic fishing policies devised in Brussels for a people who still relied heavily on hunting and gathering. Greenland is also not alone as an Arctic EU skeptic. Iceland and Norway have kept at arm’s length from the EU for similar reasons. Greenland is trying again with seal skins, its second biggest export, which were banned by the EU in 2010. After winning an “Inuit exemption,” it sold 34,000 skins in 2016, a fraction of the 160,000 before the ban.

中国的尝试看起来更加令人担忧,因为格陵兰对欧洲的友好态度出人意料地毫不为之所动。 它可能已经用尽了与丹麦陈旧的后殖民关系所能期望的一切,加上语言和文化认同纠纷,以及围绕自力更生与旧世界家长式作风的争吵, 格陵兰在欧盟的经历也是不愉快的。 它于1985年离开欧盟,对布鲁塞尔制定的不切实际的捕鱼政策感到沮丧,因为这些政策显然不利于仍然严重依赖于狩猎和采集的格陵兰。格陵兰并不是唯一一个对欧盟持怀疑态度的北极国家。出于同样的原因,冰岛和挪威一直与欧盟保持距离。 格陵兰岛再次尝试海豹皮,这是它的第二大出口,在2010年被欧盟禁止。 在赢得"因纽特人豁免"后,它在2016年卖出了3.4万张皮,只是禁令颁布前16万张中的一小部分。

But there is another option for Greenland: the United States has a history in the country that far predates Chinese interest. The United States oversaw Greenland after Denmark fell to the Nazis in 1940. The United States erected a variety of military installations and monitoring stations, seeing Greenland as a geostrategic midpoint between the Western Hemisphere and Europe. A somewhat mixed legacy, the inevitable trash and debris—some of which may be radioactive—left Greenlanders leery of foreign military presences.

但格陵兰还有另外一个选择:美国在这个国家有利益的历史远远早于中国。 1940年丹麦沦入纳粹之手后,美国监管了格陵兰岛。 美国建立了各种军事设施和监测站,将格陵兰岛视为西半球与欧洲之间的地缘战略中点,并留下了一些有点复杂的遗产——不可避免的垃圾和碎片——其中一些可能具有放射性——这让格陵兰人对外国军事存在心存疑虑。

After the war, the United States was quick to appreciate Greenland’s continuing value as a Cold War defense monitoring point and offered the Danes $100 million for it. The Danes declined, despite the considerable expense of the annual subsidy. But Thule Air Base, founded in 1943 and now run jointly by Americans, Danes, Canadians and Greenlanders, symbolizes a significant and long-running relationship. It’s a thin plank, but it’s a start—a rare example of Americans and Greenlanders working together.

战后,美国迅速认识到格陵兰作为冷战防御监测点的持续价值,并为此向丹麦人提供了1亿美元。 尽管每年的补贴花费巨大,但丹麦人还是拒绝了。 但是,图勒空军基地成立于1943年,现在由美国人、丹麦人、加拿大人和格陵兰人共同经营,象征着一种重要而长期的关系。 这是一个薄板,但它是一个开始ーー一个罕见的例子,美国人和格陵兰人一起工作。

Thule got America in the door long ago, but it’s high time for a new initiative to get it to the table. A modern relationship with Greenland ought to be defined not solely in military terms but in trade, investment, tourism, research, and the exchange of people and ideas. Americans should respect the fact that Greenland has a choice: it can strengthen ties to North America—its geographic home; it can realign itself to Europe; or it can seek help further afield, particularly from China. The United States could make a strong case, since Greenland is geographically part of North America. Its Inuit communities have more in common with communities in Canada and Alaska than with Washington, Copenhagen or Beijing. Most of the population resides on the southwestern shores, facing Canada and the United States.

极北之地(注:Thule)很久以前就把美国拉进了大门,但现在是时候采取新的举措了。 与格陵兰的现代关系不应仅仅从军事角度来定义,还应该在贸易、投资、旅游、研究以及人员和思想交流等方面。 美国人应该尊重这样一个事实: 格陵兰有一个选择: 它可以加强与北美的联系——它的地理位置; 它可以重新调整自己到欧洲; 或者在更远的地方寻求帮助,特别是从中国寻求帮助。 由于格陵兰在地理上是北美的一部分,美国可以提出一个强有力的理由。 与华盛顿、哥本哈根或北京相比,因纽特人社区与加拿大和阿拉斯加的社区有着更多的共同点, 大部分人口居住在西南海岸,面对加拿大和美国。

There’s an easy way for the United States to stay in the game. Washington could signal its interest in engagement by opening a small consulate, or an American Presence Post (APP) in Nuuk, Greenland’s capital. This could be a modest affair, staffed by a single officer reporting back to the U.S. embassy in Copenhagen. The APP model has been successful in France, Brazil, and elsewhere, and offers the undeniable advantage of inserting an American diplomat as a permanent feature on the nascent diplomatic landscape. The point is not to offer consular services, but a friendly diplomatic face to engage with Greenlandic society—everyone from parliamentarians and those working in the business, education, arts and environmental sectors. When Greenlanders want to meet with Americans, this officer would be the go-to person, helping organize trade missions, professional and educational exchanges, and bringing experts from all walks of life to meet with Greenlanders. Former secretary of state John Kerry set the stage for deeper diplomatic engagement during his visit to Greenland in July of 2016. Now it’s time to follow up.

对美国来说,有一种简单的方式可以留在游戏中。 华盛顿可以通过在格陵兰首都努克开设一个小型领事馆或一个展示美国存的单位(APP)来表达其参与的兴趣。 这可能是一件不起眼的事情,只有一位官员向美国驻哥本哈根大使馆汇报工作。 在法国、巴西和其他地方,APP 模式取得了成功,提供了一个不可否认的优势:在新生的外交环境中插入一名美国外交官作为一个永久的特征。 关键不在于提供领事服务,而在于与格陵兰社会进行友好的外交接触——从议会到商业、教育、艺术和环保部门工作的人。 当格陵兰人想要与美国人会面时,这位官员将成为最佳人选,帮助组织贸易代表团、专业和教育交流,并带来来自各行各业的专家与格陵兰人会面。 前国务卿约翰 · 克里在2016年7月访问格陵兰期间,为更深入的外交接触奠定了基础, 现在是时候跟进了。

A U.S. diplomatic presence could serve as Greenland’s entrée to many other institutions in the Western Hemisphere. Ultimately, Greenland might find a newly negotiated NAFTA to be a more comfortable fit than the EU. Canada too, should reach out and explore deepening relations with the territory that has much in common with its own Arctic region.

美国的外交存在可以成为格陵兰与西半球其他许多机构的中心。 最终,格陵兰可能会发现一个新谈判的北美自由贸易协定比欧盟更适合。 加拿大也应该伸出援手,探索与与自己的北极地区有很多共同点的国家的深化关系。

One thing is certain—the United States won’t be the only country trying to establish a foothold on Greenland’s growing embassy row. In an era when U.S. military presence is all too present, this pragmatic exercise in soft power would nicely balance America’s interests and offer Greenland a fresh alternative.

有一件事是肯定的,那就是美国不会是唯一一个试图在格陵兰岛不断扩大的使馆争端中站稳脚跟的国家。 在一个美国军事存在过于现实的时代,这种在软实力方面的实际行动将很好地平衡美国的利益,并为格陵兰提供一个新的选择。

Mary Thompson-Jones is the author of To the Secretary (Norton, 2016) and holds the chair for Women in Diplomacy and National Security Studies at the U.S. Naval War College in Newport, RI.

玛丽·汤普森-琼斯是《致国务卿》( 诺顿,2016) 一书的作者,并在美国海军战争学院担任女性参与外交和国家安全研究的主席。

BaronR 4 days ago
It would be better for all nations to treat Greenland as a nation to engaged and trade with rather than using it as a potential political football to kick around.


Thomas Fung 3 days ago
Perhaps the North American nation best suited to keeping Greenland as part of NATO would be Canada, not the USA.


Edward Olson 3 days ago
I'm a liberal Democrat, but one wouldn't think so from the rest of this comment. i think we are daft to allow China an opening in Greenland. The peaceful and reasonable course the author suggests is fine, so far as it goes, but to let the "near arctic" power, China, even be seen as our rival, is folly. Let China keep hold of the South China Sea, if we must, but Greenland has been an American protectorate, in all but name, for three quarters of a century.
Not to put too fine a point on it, but even Denmark, itself, has been our client state. De facto, if not de jure.
The 56,000 inhabitants of Greenland should be made an "offer they can't refuse". That's the prerogative of a superpower in the real world.
Realpolitik.......China certainly follows it's dictates, and so should we.



disqusdamnuserid Edward Olson a day ago
Inhabitants of Greenland, if they want, they can be a protectorate as a territory of China.
Saqqaqa/Dorset/Thule....ancient East Asian back in it's fold.
(Does this not sound more constructive, if not realistic dialogue than some fictional"orc")


Scarecrow Swift Laggard II a day ago
Sounds like the "The Age of men is over. The time of the Orc has come." LotR: The Return of the King. In the movie, men prevailed and the Orcs were defeated. Surely, in real life, mother earth wouldn't allow the ugly, despicable, greedy, power-hungry and expansionist Orcs to reign supreme over the planet, don't you think?


disqusdamnuserid 4 days ago
Greenland was first inhabited by East Asians - you know, the light yellow skinned, slanted-eyed folks from the Far East Asian.


NWBill disqusdamnuserid 3 days ago
Where does your information come from Please provide sources and links.
And please don't reply with any"I've done the work; look it up for yourself" crap - if you can't back up your claims with facts and data, then you need to STFU.

你的信息从何而来,请提供来源和链接。请不要回答“ 我说完了,你自己去找”;如果你不能用事实和数据来支持你的主张,那你就闭上你的臭嘴。

Tokples disqusdamnuserid a day ago
They didn't put up my links but it a group of people that no longer exist and then the Europeans came to Greenland and then the Thule and the Inuit.
As for your argument that the first people were East Asian is incorrect. That's all I needed to prove.


disqusdamnuserid Guest a day ago
keep trying.
yeah..so Siberians are Europeans....and therefore Europeans indeed were the first people in Americas as the "Natives".
Another wishful thinking by Whites.


disqusdamnuserid Tokples a day ago
What are the 5 words Inuits used to call you
1. moron
2. dr.spanked too hard on head
3. instead of grey-matter, you have no matter
4. lover of man
5. four fingers. 1up bum

1. 白痴
2. 脑袋被门夹了
3. 不是没灰白质,是根本没脑子。
4. 基佬
5. 四个指头,还一个戳P眼

disqusdamnuserid NWBill 3 days ago
Archaeology evidences - burial sites of ancient bones show DNA match those of East Asians.
Phenotypes of modern Northern Peoples (Inuits) similar to East Asian.
Hey Moron NBDick...why don't you finish your high school education


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