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QA讨论:为什么美国企业没有立马搬离中国?


Why are American companies not moving out of China immediately?
译者:unknown     发布时间:2020-11-10     超过 0 位网友阅读

为什么他们要这么做?中国国内市场的规模在2019年刚刚超过了美国,并也将在未来持续领先美国




Nicholas MacDonald, spent six years working in China
Three words for you: One. Billion. Customers.We pay a lot of attention to the trade deficit with China - yet the deficit is merely the difference between what we export to them and what we import from them, and we export a lot - $106.5 billion in goods and services last year alone. China is our third largest export trade destination, after Canada and Mexico.

用四个字便能回答你的问题:十亿客户。我们总是非常关注美国对中国的贸易逆差,但逆差只是出口总额和进口总额的差额,我们同样向他们出口了很多,光是去年一年美国便向中国出口了价值1065亿美元的商品以及服务。中国是我们的第三大贸易出口国,仅次于加拿大和墨西哥。


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It’s often forgotten in the discussion of trade that the US may no longer be the largest industrial exporter in the world (though we’re still #2, at over $1.6 trillion perh year), we are - BY FAR - the largest service exporter in the world. Nobody else even comes close to the $800+ billion we export in services - ranging from McDonalds to McKinsey, Starbucks to Goldman Sachs, Holiday Inn to BoozAllenHamilton.

在讨论贸易时,人人常常会忘记一点,美国可能已不再是世界最大的工业出口国(不过我们仍然是第二大出口国,每年工业产品出口额达到1.6万亿美元),但迄今为止,我们依然是世界上最大的服务出口国。我们的服务出口额到达了8000亿美元,从麦当劳到麦肯锡,从星巴克到高盛,从假日酒店到,博思艾伦..没有任何一个国家能在这方面与我们相提并论。

Ask General Motors, who sold more cars in China last year than they did in the US.Ask Starbucks, who opened their 4,000th store in China last year.Ask Microsoft, who have been operating in China for 25 years and find new business opportunities there all the time, despite rampant piracy.A customer base four times larger than that of the US is nothing a capitalist can resist easily.

你去问问通用汽车便知道了,该公司去年在中国的汽车销量超过了其在美国的销量。去问问去年在中国开设了第4000家门店的星巴克。去问问微软,虽然中国市场盗版猖獗,但微软已经在中国运营了25年,并一直能寻找到新的商业机会。对于资本家们来说,一个客户基础比美国庞大四倍的国家是他们无法轻易抗拒的。



 George Chen
You could find out more by reading reports on Luckin Coffee. Basically how American investors over estimated the coffee market in China and got ripped off. That kinda tells you how eager people want to get into large consumer markets like China.

你可以通过阅读瑞幸咖啡的报道了解到更多。事实上美国的投资者高估了中国的咖啡市场,所以才会被他们骗。这也正说明人们是有多么渴望能够进入中国这样一个庞大的消费市场。



Peter Elliott
Maybe it goes to show just how bad American coffee is lol.

也许这也说明了美国咖啡是有多么的糟糕,哈哈0



Peter Elliott
And in fact if you added the service trade to the manufacturing trade (I have no idea why they don’t) the US would have a massive trade surplus with China. Which the US is imperilling with a trade war.

事实上,如果你把中美之间的服务贸易差额与制造业差额一并计算的话,美国会对中国有着巨大的贸易顺差。然而如今美国正通过贸易战危及这一现状。



Sashank Reddy, Systems Software Engineer at Neato Robotics. Bay area CA
The Answer is quite simple. They don’t own the manufacturing plants.The manufacturing plants are Chinese firm owned. Everyone else is their client.It created hollow companies in USA and the rest of the world.A Chinese glove factory was setup to make any and all kinds of gloves in 10 million pairs a day. Who ever wanted them, could just pay for a different box and labeling.

这个问题的答案很简单。因为美国企业并不拥有那些工厂,它们是属于中国企业的。而其他人都是他们的客户。这些工厂在美国和世界其他地方催生出了大量空心公司。比方说中国建立了一家手套工厂,生产各类手套,他们每日产量能够达到1000万双。然后任何想要从他们那里购买这些手套的外国企业,只需要花钱定制不同的盒子和标签便行了。

The question then comes down to what is the value of your company. Practically nothing. Your just a distribution company masquerading as a manufacturer. A total hollow company. Since you don’t own the actual plant, you can’t force them to do anything they don’t want to do. Besides, moving a plant is really waste of time and energy. It pretty much costs you the same as building a new plant.ys.

那么问题来了,你们的这些公司又有什么价值呢?答案是几乎一文不值。你们不过只是一家伪装成制造商的经销公司。一个完完全全的空壳公司。既然你们没有真正的工厂,所以你们自然无法强迫他们做自己不愿意做的事情。此外,搬迁一家工厂也是非常浪费时间和精力的,它所花费的成本几乎和建造一座新工厂差不多。

China efficient supply chain also keeps the cost low for US companies. In the past three decades US companies have chosen to relocate their supply chain to low cost countries like China. US companies have been enjoying rising profit and US consumers enjoying the cheap goods. Globalization keeps inflation low such that US government could borrow at a very low interest rate and US shareholders have enjoyed 30 years of bonanza in stock market.And now they want to reverse it?

此外中国高效的供应链也让美国企业保持了低成本。在过去30年里,美国企业选择将供应链转移至中国等低成本国家。美国企业因此一直享受着利润的攀升,而美国消费者也享受到了廉价的商品。全球化使得通货膨胀保持在低水平,美国政府因此能以极为低廉的利率借款,美国股东也在股市上享受了30年的红利。现在他们会想要扭转这种局面?0



Steven Wu
Apple can''''t move out of China not just because of the huge market or low labour cost. China based Foxconn, the OEM for Apple iPhones, depends on many components that are almost exclusively made in China so moving out will complicate the supply chain. Many technical skills needed for advanced manufacturing are no longer available in US.

苹果公司无法离开中国的原因不仅仅是中国巨大的市场以及低廉的劳动力成本。总部位于中国的富士康是苹果的代工制造商,该公司依赖的许多零部件几乎都是在中国制造的,因此迁出中国将会使其供应链变得格外复杂。先进制造业所需要的很多技能在美国已经不复存在了。



Masao Miwa, Lived 50 years in Asia
Why? The Chinese domestic market just passed the US in 2019 and continues to outperform the US. (about $6 trillion each) American companies go where the money is so China is a lucrative market for them. Worldwide, US companies have a $5.7 trillion surplus in what is called ‘foreign affiliate sales.’ Why would they move their business back to the US to be uncompetitive?

为什么他们要这么做?中国国内市场的规模在2019年刚刚超过了美国,并也将在未来持续领先美国。中国每年的市场规模到达6万亿美元,美国公司自然会奔向钱所在的地方,中国对他们而言是一个有利可图的市场。美国企业在全球范围内的所谓“海外附属销售”盈余达到了5.7万亿美元。他们为何要冒着让自己失去竞争力的危险将业务迁回美国?0



Mike Chiew, former Retired Marketing Manager
Trump is talking big and wants all US companies to move out but how many of them can really do that. Some conglomerates had spent millions and millions doing the upgrading job, do you thing they be able to pack up and leave China immediately.

特朗普在大放厥词,他希望所有的美国企业都能搬出中国,然而又有多么公司能够真正做到呢?一些大型企业集团已经花费了数不胜数的钱升级自己在中国的产业,你觉得他们能够就这样马上收拾好行李离开中国吗?

Even the biggest iPhone has to think thrice before do it. But still prefer China as her permanent base. Moving to other country may caused the product quality to drop because Chinese has the expertise in them. It is China assembled iPhones have good quality. iPhone market dominance had already dwindled and will suffer further drop in sales if chosen the wrong direction. The Tesla EV too had chosen to stay, why, because the prospect is unlimited.

即便是最大头的iPhone在考虑这个问题时也得三思而后行,而且他们仍然倾向于选择中国作为自己的永久生产基地。将业务转移至其他国家可能会导致他们的产品质量下降,因为这是中国人擅长做的事情。中国组装的iPhone质量优越。如今iphone在市场上统治力已经开始减弱了,如果他们选择了错误的反向,其销量将会进一步下滑。特斯拉也选择留在中国,为什么?因为这里的前景是无限的。


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