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英国媒体:印度宣布年内驱逐所有罗兴亚难民


Are the Rohingya India's 'favourite whipping boy'?
译者:unknown     发布时间:2018-04-14     超过 0 位网友阅读

在缅甸,罗兴亚人被视为来自孟加拉国的非法移民

原文地址:http://www.bbc.com


At home in Myanmar, they are unwanted and denied citizenship. Outside, they are largely friendless as well. Now the government says that Rohingya living in India pose a clear and present danger to national security.

在他们的居住地缅甸,罗兴亚人不受缅甸主流社会待见、不被承认公民身份;而在缅甸以外,罗兴亚人也基本上没有任何朋友。印度政府目前宣称,在该国境内的罗兴亚人对国家安全构成了“明确和实在”的威胁。

印度宣布年内驱逐所有罗兴亚难民

First, a government minister kicked up a storm earlier this month when he announced that India would deport its entire Rohingya population, thought to number about 40,000, including some 16,000 who have been registered as refugees by the UN.

首先,政府部长在本月初宣布严打,宣布印度将驱逐整个罗兴亚人族群,其人数约为4万人,当中约16,000人已登记为联合国认可的合法难民。

The Rohingya are seen by many of Myanmar's Buddhist majority as illegal migrants from Bangladesh. Fleeing persecution at home, they began arriving in India during the 1970s and are now scattered all over the country, many living in squalid camps.

罗兴亚人,被缅甸主要信奉佛教的主流社会,视为来自孟加拉的非法移民。为了逃离在缅甸遭受的迫害,自1970年代起陆续有罗兴亚人逃往印度,现在已遍布全国,许多居住在肮脏的营地里。

The government's announcement has come at what many say is an inappropriate time, as violence in Myanmar's western Rakhine state has forced more than 400,000 Rohingya Muslims across the border into Bangladesh since August.

政府的通告已被许多人认为是不恰当的,自从8月份以来,缅甸西部若开邦的暴力事.件迫使40多万罗兴亚穆斯林跨过边境进入孟加拉国。

When petitioners went to the Supreme Court challenging the proposed ejection plan, Narendra Modi's government responded by saying it had intelligence about links of some community members with global terrorist organisations, including ones based in Pakistan.
It said some Rohingya living here were indulging in "anti-national and illegal activities", and could help stoke religious tensions.

印度国内有自由人士已发起联署,要求该国最高法院介入此事,但总理莫迪领导的政府则回应称:当局已掌握情报,显示逃到印度的罗兴亚群体中,有人与恐怖组织有联系,包括以巴基斯坦为基地的恐怖组织。

Most Rohingyas in India live in squalid camps

大部分罗兴亚人生活在印度肮脏的营地里

Experts agree the threat from Myanmar's newly-emergent Rohingya militant group, the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (Arsa), should not be underestimated. Analyst Subir Bhaumik describes Arsa as "strong and motivated", although its exact size and influence remain unclear.

专家们认为,不应该低估缅甸新兴的罗兴亚武装组织阿拉贡罗兴亚救世军(阿尔萨)的威胁。分析师Subir Bhaumik将阿尔萨描述为“强大而有力”的,尽管其确切的规模和影响仍不清楚。

The current crisis began in Rakhine in August with an Arsa attack on police posts which killed 12 security personnel. Reports say the group has at least 600 armed fighters.

目前的危机始于八月,若开罗兴亚救世军同时攻击了若开邦多个警察岗哨,造成至少12名缅甸警员死亡。有报道指出,该组织目前有至少600名全副武装的战士。

Bangladeshi officials claim that Arsa has links with a banned militant group Jamaat-ul Mujahideen Bangladesh (JMB), which was held responsible for the July 2016 cafe attack in Dhaka in which 20 hostages died. Delhi believes groups like Arsa pose a threat to regional security.

孟加拉当局称,若开罗兴亚救世军与该国非法武装组织“孟加拉圣战士组织”有联系。而“孟加拉圣战士组织”于今年一月在达卡一间咖啡厅发动袭击,造成20名人质死亡。

But critics of the move wonder how much credible intelligence India has on Rohingya refugees on its soil with terror links.

但是,批评人士认为,印度对罗兴亚难民与恐怖组织之间的联系没有多少可信赖的情报。

They say India has fought long-running home-grown insurgencies with rebel groups in the north-east and Maoists in central India, which have arguably posed a greater threat to national security than what they say is a rag-tag and scattered Rohingya population.

他们说印度已经长期与国内叛乱组织作战,比如在印度中部与东北部的毛派武装,这些组织对印度国家安全的威胁,可以说比他们所说的一个衣衫褴褛和分散的罗兴亚族群更大。

Also, many question a proposed move to punish a community for the perceived crimes of some - in other words, is it right to consider all Rohingya a security threat?

另外,为了所谓一部分人的罪行,去惩罚整个族群,是否合理呢?也就是说,将所有罗兴亚人均视为国家威胁,是否是对的?

On the other hand, India's Home Minister Rajnath Singh insists Rohingya are not refugees or asylum-seekers. "They are illegal immigrants," he said recently.

另一方面,印度内政部长拉杰·辛格坚持认为罗兴亚人不是难民或寻求庇护者。”“他们是非法移民,”他最近这么说。

But critics say this is untenable because India is legally bound by the UN principle of "non-refoulement" - meaning no push-backs of asylum seekers to life-threatening places.

但批评人士们说,这道理是站不住脚的,因为印度有法定责任遵行联合国的“不遣返”原则,即不能将企图寻求庇护者,强制送回到对他们有生命危险威胁的地方。

Also, India's constitution clearly says that it "shall endeavour to foster respect for international law and obligations in the dealings of organised peoples with one another".

此外,印度宪法明确表示,“在有组织的人民交往中,应努力促进尊重国际法和义务”。

Like much of Asia, which is home to a third of the more than 20 million displaced people in the world, India has a curious track record in refugee protection.

目前全球有超过2000万人流离失所,当中的三分之一身处亚洲。而印度在保护难民方面有着良好的记录。

Although the country is not party to the 1951 UN Refugee Convention and its 1967 protocol and doesn't have a formal asylum policy, it hosts more than 200,000 refugees, returnees, stateless people and asylum seekers, according the UN refugee agency, UNHCR. (These include more than 100,000 Tibetans from China and more than 60,000 Tamils from Sri Lanka.)

尽管印度不属于1951年联合国《难民地位公约》及1967年相关议定书的谛约国,没有正式的难民法例及政策,但据联合国难民署(难民署)称,印度收容了200000多名难民、回返者、无国籍人士和寻求庇护者。(其中包括超过100000名从中国来的,和超过60000名自斯里兰卡来的难民。)

The Rohingyas are thought to number about 40,000 in India

他被认为是进入印度的第4万个难民

At the same time, India has always taken in refugees based on political considerations. It took in tens of thousands of refugees from Bangladesh during the country's 1971 war of independence from Pakistan even as it trained and supported pro-liberation guerrillas, for example.

多年来,印度均会基于政治考虑,针对性的收容难民。包括超过10万名提贝特人(藏人?),以及在1971孟加拉出现要求脱离巴基斯坦du立的战争时,印度收容了成千上万的孟加拉难民,当中包括支援及训练du立阵营游击队的人。

Many like Michel Gabaudan, former president of the advocacy group Refugee International, believe that India distrusts the international refugee process partly "because it [has] received little recognition for taking in refugees" in the past.

人权倡议组织“难民国际”前主席嘉布丹认为,印度对国际难民收容程序不信任,是因为印度过往收容难民的过往功绩在国际社会不获承认。

'Unenviable'

“吃力不讨好”

A 2015 paper by a group of Indian researchers said the image of Rohingya in India was "unenviable - foreigner, Muslim, stateless, suspected Bangladeshi national, illiterate, impoverished and dispersed across the length and breadth of the country".

2015年印度的一份研究报告指出:印度对罗兴亚人的形象是:“外国人、NOTE7人、无国籍、疑似孟加拉人、文盲、贫困、四散于国内各地”,在印度可谓“极不讨好”。

"This makes them illegal, undesirable, the other, a threat, and a nuisance," the paper said.

“这在他们看来是违法、不能接受的,是令人不安的威胁和滋扰。”

This also makes them, says analyst Subir Bhaumik, "a favourite whipping boy for the Hindu right-wing to energise their base".

分析师苏比尔。包米克指出,这样典型的形象,使罗兴亚人成为印度右翼鼓动民粹的“最佳替罪羊”。

"Remember how the issue of the Bangladeshi illegal migrant was invoked by Mr Modi and his party during the 2014 election campaign?" he said, referring to the prime minister's efforts to generate support from his Hindu base in areas with many migrants.

“还记得在2014年大选期间,莫迪的团队如何利用孟加拉非法移民的议题吗?”包米克提醒说。当年,莫迪的竞选团队正是以此议题,在移民较多的选区鼓动印度裔选民投他的票的。
 
In Myanmar, Rohingya are seen as illegal migrants from Bangladesh

在缅甸,罗兴亚人被视为来自孟加拉国的非法移民

In the end, many say, what is is deeply troubling is a country talking about returning Rohingya people to Myanmar even as they appear to be the target of what the UN says "seems a textbook example of ethnic cleansing".

令人担忧的是,印度正在谈论将罗兴亚人遣返回缅甸,即使他们可能是联合国所说的“教科书式种族清洗”的目标。

"Any nation has a right, and indeed a responsibility, to consider security risks, but that cannot be confused as an excuse to knowingly force an entire group of people back to a place where they will face certain persecution and a high likelihood of severe human rights abuses and death," Daniel Sullivan of Refugees International told me.

“任何国家都有权利及责任去考虑国家安全问题,但这不能与驱逐一个族群回到受迫害、甚至生命受到威胁的地方混为一谈。”难民国际人权高级倡议者苏利文说。

That is something India would possibly do well to remember.

这是印度可能会记住的最好的事情。



 
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